Timeline: Public Health through time
|The Prehistoric period|
|The Ancient World||Nile River – irrigation ditches
Herodotus (c450BC) wrote of Egyptians using mosquito nets (common sense prevention – used fishing nets) and also of the requirement for priests to shave every third day to avoid being infected by lice.
India – Mohenjo Daro: sewerage system (c1500BC)
Crete, c1500BC: The Minoan civilisation created an extensive system of water supply and drainage.
Rome – by 100AD Rome had 9 aqueducts serving the city; a sewage system and public baths and fountains. These ideas spread around the empire – can be illustrated using a variety of examples linked to the rise of the empire.
Nimes, France. Aqueduct 1st century AD)
Bath – Bathhouses (C100AD)
Housesteads – toilets.
|Medieval||Hereford Cathedral – mass grave for victims of the Black Death
8th century Ad: Baghdad – hospital
Cairo – hospital
1349, London: King Edward III writes to the Lord Mayor of London ordering him to ensure that the city and suburbs are kept clean to prevent the spread of disease.
|The Renaissance||1665, London: The Lord Mayor issues a series of rules about the isolation of infected persons, the burial of the dead and the cleanliness of streets.
Eyam Plague village
|The Industrial Revolution||1807, Germany. Smallpox vaccination is made compulsory.
1842, Great Britain: Edwin Chadwick publishes his ‘Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain’ which highlights the poor state of Public Health.
1848, Great Britain: Public Health Act.
1853, Britain. Smallpox vaccination is made compulsory.
1854, London: Edwin Chadwick is sacked and the General Board of Health is abolished.
1861, France. Pasteur shows that microbes cause disease.
1865, Great Britian. Cholera epidemic kills 14000 people in England and Wales.
1867, Great Britain: The vote is given to all male householders in the UK.
1875, Great Britain. Parliament passes a Public Health Act that requires each town council to provide effective sewers, clean water and to employ a qualified doctor as a Medical officer.
1899, UK. Isolation hospitals are opened for infectious diseases.
|The Modern World||1902, United Kingdom: Regulations are introduced about the training of midwives.
1906, United Kingdom: Free school meals are introduced for children from poorer families.
1907, United Kingdom: Legislation comes into force that means that every new mother is visted and advised by a health vistor.
1907, United Kingdom: Medicial inspections of children are conducted through schools.
1908, United Kingdom: The Old Age Pension is introduced for over 70’s.
1911, United Kingdom: The National Insurance scheme is introduced. It proves unemployment benefits, sick pay and the cost of doctors and medicines.
1919, United Kingdom: A policy of slum clearance and council house building is introduced.
1948, United Kingdom: The National Health Service is launched, providing free point of care treatment for all.
1948, New York: World Health Organisation is launched to aid developing countries combat health issues.
1949, China: Following the Chinese Revolution a policy is introduced of combining traditional Chinese treatments with western, scientific approaches.
1955: World Health Organisation begins and ongoing campaign to eradicate Malaria.
1967: World Health Organisation begins campaign to eradicate Smallpox. It is successful, smallpox has not been reported anywhere in the world since 1980.
1981: WHO launch ‘Health for all by 2000’ campaign, supported by 158 member nations.
1985: UNICEF launch massive campaign to raise awareness of medicine deficiencies in Sudan. This coincides with the ‘Live Aid’ appeal to help people survive a major African famine.